Copy Editing

  • improve tone and flow of individual sentences
  • correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar
  • apply American Medical Association (AMA) style
  • check citations and references
  • format manuscript according to journal or agency specifications


Substantive Editing

  • improve organization, logical flow, clarity, succinctness, and impact of document as a whole
  • expand, condense, delete, reorder, or rewrite sentences or paragraphs as needed
  • reduce word or page count, if required


Layout Review

  • review layout for appropriate placement of text, headings, tables, figures, and other elements
  • check for appropriate typeface
  • check line and page breaks and end-of-line hyphenation